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Year : 2006  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 164-169

Esthetic considerations for the interdental papilla: Eliminating black triangles around restorations: A literature review

Department of Prosthodontics, M. A. Rangoonwala College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Pune - 411 001, India

Correspondence Address:
Iyer Satishkumar Krishnan
C/o M.A. Rangoonwala College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, 2390 B.K.B. Hidayatullah Road, Azam Campus Camp, Pune - 411 001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-4052.30689

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Several reasons contribute to the loss or absence of interdental papillae and establishment of 'black triangles' following the placement of bridges/individual crowns or restoration of implants, mainly in the anterior region. The most common reason for the absence in the adult population is loss of periodontal support because of plaque-associated lesions. The other causes include abnormal tooth shape, improper contour of prosthetic restorations and traumatic oral hygiene procedures. These Black Triangles appear extremely unesthetic and are unacceptable to the patients who deserve more than 'these will fill up in a few week's time' from the dentist. It is evident that something as seemingly insignificant as the interdental papilla can shatter the esthetic results of the best fabricated crowns. Several surgical and non-surgical procedures have been proposed to treat the soft tissue deformities in the interproximal areas. The non-surgical approaches modify the interproximal space whereas the surgical approaches aim to recontour, preserve or reconstruct the soft tissue between the teeth and implants. This review deals with an in-depth discussion of the interdental papilla, reasons for its absence around dental restorations and various documented methods of preserving and regenerating it so as to deliver the best overall prosthetic results. This review discusses the interdental papilla in detail and categorizes the various approaches to restore the same.

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