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 Table of Contents  
RESEARCH
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 78-83

Knowledge and awareness of polycaprolactone and its applications as provisional material in prosthodontic practice: A questionnaire-based survey


Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital, Sankalchand Patel University, Visnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission03-May-2022
Date of Decision10-Oct-2022
Date of Acceptance13-Oct-2022
Date of Web Publication29-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Kavan A Patel
Reader, Ph. D Scholar, Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital, Sankalchand Patel University, Visnagar - 384 315, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jips.jips_224_22

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  Abstract 


Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of different provisional materials, especially polycaprolactone (PCL) and their application in prosthodontic practice.
Setting and Design: A questionnaire based survey was carried out to assess the knowledge and awareness of PCL and its applications as provisional material in prosthodontic practice.
Materials and Method: A questionnaire-based descriptive study consisting of 10 questions related to different provisional materials and their applications in prosthodontic practice was formulated on Google Forms. The link was created and circulated among the prosthodontist faculty members of various dental institutes and private practitioners of India with the use of digital platforms such as E-mail and social media. The data were collected and examined using Microsoft Excel software for statistical evaluation.
Statistical Analysis Used: For this descriptive type of study, knowledge and awareness among prosthodontists across India was evaluated using Microsoft Excel software.
Results: The use of PCL was known only to 20.75% of prosthodontists. Moreover, its application and indications are known to only <1% of the study participants. Autopolymerizing resin was most commonly used for the custom tray and temporary base fabrication as well as temporization in crown and bridge prosthesis, while muscle deprogrammer and surgical template were commonly fabricated in heat-cure and clear acrylic resin, respectively. Pattern resin was found to be commonly used in splinting implant impression copings.
Conclusion: The use of PCL as a temporary denture base, custom tray, muscle deprogrammer, implant impression splinting, and provisional for crown and bridge and templates should be encouraged and incorporated to get benefits of its characteristic properties. Considering the overall performance of PCL, its use should be incorporated into prosthodontic research and practice.

Keywords: Polycaprolactone, prosthodontic application, provisional materials, questionnaire study, survey


How to cite this article:
Patel KA, Patel JR, Patel VV, Duseja S, Raval HJ. Knowledge and awareness of polycaprolactone and its applications as provisional material in prosthodontic practice: A questionnaire-based survey. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2023;23:78-83

How to cite this URL:
Patel KA, Patel JR, Patel VV, Duseja S, Raval HJ. Knowledge and awareness of polycaprolactone and its applications as provisional material in prosthodontic practice: A questionnaire-based survey. J Indian Prosthodont Soc [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Feb 6];23:78-83. Available from: https://www.j-ips.org/text.asp?2023/23/1/78/365945




  Introduction Top


Resins are the combination of monomers or macromolecules which combine with other components to create a material of superior properties. Synthetic resins are described as plastic, which are dimensionally stable in their use and forever reshaped by irreversible deformation. Plastic is molded into different shapes by heat, pressure, or chemical reaction.[1]

Polymers are used in different dental applications such as denture bases, denture teeth, custom trays, impression materials, splints, maxillofacial prostheses, soft liners, core buildup materials, temporary restoratives, and luting materials.[1]

Polycaprolactone (PCL) was among the oldest polymer synthesized by the Carothers group in the 1930s.[2] Later on, it was commercially available with the efforts to recognize synthetic polymers with reduced microorganisms.[3] PCL can be made by either ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone using with anionic, cationic, and coordination catalysts or through free-radical ring-opening polymerization of 2-methylene-1-3-dioxepane.[4]

PCL is a hydrophobic and semicrystalline in nature. The crystallinity of PCL tends to decrease with increasing molecular weight. PCL has low melting point (59°C–64°C), and extraordinary blend compatibility has stimulated extensive research in the biomedical field.[5],[6],[7] PCL and its copolymers were used in various drug-delivery devices. Various other groups were also added to make the polymers more adhesive, hydrophilic, and biocompatible in nature. The average molecular weight of PCL may vary from 3000 to 80,000 g/mol. PCL was graded according to molecular weight.[8] It can easily merge with other polymers to manufacture copolymers with different physicochemical properties and biodegradability.[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15]

Residual monomers in autopolymerizing acrylic resins may cause allergic reactions and biocompatibility issues. The literature regarding the comparison of PCL and autopolymerizing resin does not exist. In the field of prosthodontics, various provisional materials are routinely used, but the use of PCL as a provisional material is seldom known.

This questionnaire was done to evaluate and assess the knowledge and awareness of different provisional materials, especially PCL and their applications in prosthodontic practice.


  Materials and Method Top


It was a descriptive type of study and was conducted across India in 2021 from August 16, 2021 to October 15, 2021, for 2 months. Ethical approval no. NPDCH/IEC/2021/44.

Study population

The study participants were prosthodontists across India.

Inclusion criteria

All the prosthodontics across the country whether they are attached to dental institutes or private practitioner. Inclusion criteria were independent of the institute, gender, postgraduation year, and curriculum content.

Exclusion criteria

Prosthodontists who denied participating in the present study were excluded from the study.

Study method

The study was carried out across India. In the process of validation, the final questionnaire was circulated among experts in the same field, and their responses were recorded. Based on that result, required modifications were done. A survey was formulated with the help of Google Form, and it was circulated among the participants, and data were recorded.

This survey comprised 10 questions. There were six open-ended and four closed-ended questions to know the dentist usage of different provisional materials. Five demographic questions related to E-mail, designation, participant name, college name (if attached), and experience were included [Table 1].
Table 1: Questionnaire

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In total, 106 prosthodontists across India were included in the survey.

Sample size for descriptive statistics,[16],[17]

n = 4pq/L2

10% of P = 10×

where P = 92.8%

=0.928

q = (1 − p)

=1–0.928

=0.072 = 7.2%

L = Allowable error = (5%) = 0.05

n = 4 × 0.928 × 0.072/(0.05) 2

n = 106

The questionnaire was sent to the participants, and the collected responses were included in statistical analysis. The results of the questionnaire were tabulated in Google Sheets. Data were evaluated descriptively with the use of Microsoft Excel software.


  Results Top


The questionnaire study was completed by a total of 106 respondents, which included prosthodontists across India. The following questions were formulated for the participants [Table 1].

78% of participants preferred autopolymerizing acrylic resin for making of custom trays. Self-cure acrylic resin is the most common and preferred material of choice for the making of custom trays [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Frequently used material for fabrication of custom tray

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Similarly, autopolymerizing acrylic resin is preferred by 78% of participants for the fabrication of temporary denture bases. Autopolymerizing acrylic resin is the most common and preferred material of choice for the fabrication of temporary denture base, followed by light-cure resin (14%) and shellac base plate (7%) [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Frequently used material for fabrication of temporary denture base

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67.9% of participants commonly used autopolymerizing acrylic resin too for the fabrication of temporary crown/bridge. Hence, autopolymerizing acrylic resin is the preferred material of choice for the fabrication of crown/bridge, followed by heat-cure resin (17%) [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Frequently used material for fabrication of temporary crown/bridge

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It was found that 53.8% of participants preferred autopolymerizing acrylic resin for the fabrication of muscle deprogrammer. Autopolymerizing acrylic resin was followed by heat-cure acrylic resin (30.2%) for use as material for muscle deprogrammer [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Preferred material for fabrication of muscle deprogrammer

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The survey reported that 78.3% of participants preferred autopolymerizing acrylic resin commonly for the fabrication of diagnostic/surgical templates. This was followed by thermoplastic polymer (12.3%) [Figure 5]a. Another finding was that 83% of participants used pattern resin for splinting implants at the time of impression [Figure 5]b. 67% of participants knew about PCL and its application in dentistry, while 33% of prosthodontists were unaware of it [Figure 6].
Figure 5: (a) Preferred material for fabrication of diagnostic/surgical template. (b) Preferred material for splinting implants at the time of impression

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Figure 6: Application of PCL in dentistry. PCL: Polycaprolactone

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[Graph 1] shows the participants' responses about the application of PCL and its application in various dental treatments. [Graph 2] shows the participants' responses about any drawback related to PCL, while 14 participants (out of 67%) did not find any drawback related to PCL.




  Discussion Top


The PCL was widely used as drug-delivery system, tissue engineering, textile technologies, medical appliances like sutures, contraceptive devices, wound dressings, fixation instruments, etc., Nowadays, it gains its popularity as a forgotten polymer in the field of dentistry. In dentistry, earlier, it was used as a root canal filling material.

PCL has several superior properties compared to self-cure acrylic resin-such as light molecular weight, hydrophobicity, low melting point, and biocompatibility. There are different provisional materials used in dentistry, especially in the field of prosthodontics such as self-cure acrylic resins, composite resin, light-cured resins, BISGMA, and PMMA.

There are no in vivo or in vitro studies available in the literature, which justified the improved properties of PCL as a provisional material. Hence, this questionnaire-based survey was used to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of different provisional materials, especially PCL and its applications in prosthodontic practice.

In the present study, a total of 106 participants were included across India. Autopolymerizing resin was still a preferred choice of temporary material for the fabrication of custom trays (78%), denture bases (78%), muscle deprogrammer (53.8%), as well as surgical templates in the implant (clear acrylic) (78.3%). The reason may be its easy handling properties and less cost with no special equipment required. 67% of participants knew about PCL and its application in dentistry, while 33% of prosthodontists were unaware of it.

Of 67% of participants, 14 participants did not have any idea of its drawbacks. Most of the participants did not have actual knowledge of its properties, as answers were very random. The PCL is a thermoplastic material which has low viscosity in clean state and good rigidity in cool state, thus facilitating adequate molding of the material. Its melting temperature ranges from about 130°F to about 150°F and it has sufficient strength and stiffness to withstand oral forces. Moreover, because of the lack of any residual monomer, no adverse reactions and carcinogenicity have been reported. The limitations of this study were the participants and their time period. In further studies, other fields of practitioners, as well as general dentists, should be included as well as in vitro or in vivo studies should be conducted to evaluate more physical and mainly mechanical properties of PCL.

The purpose of this survey was to make the prosthodontists familiar with a material with many desirable properties of PCL and their use in routine clinical practice. Since PCL was introduced many years ago, it was obsolete in spite of its many advantages. The survey was designed to revive this unique material in prosthodontics.

Within the limitation of this questionnaire-based survey, the use of PCL should be incorporated into daily use of prosthodontic practice, especially as a temporary material because of its enlisted advantages.


  Conclusion Top


The PCL, despite its good handling properties, is not well known to prosthodontists and is a forgotten polymer. Its use as a temporary denture base, custom tray, muscle deprogrammer, implant impression splinting, provisional for crown and bridge, and templates should be encouraged and incorporated to get benefits of its characteristic properties.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to acknowledge Dr. Rahul Patel for the Statistical evaluation.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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