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  Most popular articles (Since August 15, 2005)

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The selective pressure maxillary impression: A review of the techniques and presentation of an alternate custom tray design
Sanath Shetty, P Venkat Ratna Nag, Kamalakanth K Shenoy
January-March 2007, 7(1):8-11
An impression in complete dentures is the first step in the fabrication of the complete denture prosthesis. Various theories have been proposed by different authors as to how to achieve an optimum impression in different ways. Among them the most accepted is selective pressure theory, which was advocated by Carl O Boucher. In the last few decades many authors have interpreted Boucher's selective pressure in various ways making it more complicated and difficult to follow. But all the authors proposed their concepts based on the available information of the underlying functional and histologic anatomy during their time. This article reviews the various ways of achieving selective pressure as seen by different authors and also includes a custom tray design to achieve selective pressure, which is based on the newer concepts of the stress bearing and relieving areas in the maxillary edentulous impression procedures.
  33,850 4,970 -
Concepts of occlusion in prosthodontics: A literature review, part I
V Rangarajan, B Gajapathi, PB Yogesh, M Mohamed Ibrahim, R Ganesh Kumar, Prasanna Karthik
July-September 2015, 15(3):200-205
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.165172  PMID:26929513
Occlusion and its relationship to the function of the stomatognathic system have been widely studied in dentistry since many decades. This series of articles describe about occlusion in the complete denture, fixed partial denture, and implants. Part I and II of this articles series describe concepts and philosophies of occlusion in complete denture. So far, available research has not concluded a superior tooth form or occlusal scheme to satisfy the requirements of completely edentulous patients with respect to comfort, mastication, phonetics, and esthetics. Since then, several balanced and nonbalanced articulation concepts were proposed in the literature. A balanced articulation appears to be most appropriate because of tooth contacts observed during nonfunctional activities of patients. This article discusses about evolution of different concepts of occlusion and occlusal schemes in complete denture occlusion.
  31,069 4,819 3
Corrosion in titanium dental implants: literature review
N Adya, M Alam, T Ravindranath, A Mubeen, B Saluja
July-September 2005, 5(3):126-131
The corrosion of dental biomaterials is a pertinent clinical issue. In spite of the recent innovative metallurgical and technological advances and remarkable progress in the design and development of surgical and dental materials, failures do occur. The present article describes the problem of corrosion in titanium dental implants. The clinical significance of the dental implant corrosion is highlighted and the most common form of corrosion i.e. galvanic corrosion is emphasized both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The article is presented keeping in view of carrying out different studies for indigenous titanium dental implant and indigenous alloys. The Department of Dental Research at Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences has developed indigenous Titanium Dental Implants and Base metal Alloys. The studies carried out have proven their biocompatibility and suitability to be used for oral defects. The aim of the study is to evaluate galvanic corrosion current around indigenously developed Titanium Dental Implant when coupled to a Base metal Alloy.
  32,203 1,838 26
Extracoronal direct retainers for distal extension removable partial dentures
MA Aras
April-June 2005, 5(2):65-71
Distal-extension removable partial dentures have always posed a challenging situation to the clinician and in such cases the strategic positioning of the direct retainers would ensure the long-term success of the prosthesis. Different direct retainer designs have been discussed by various authors in the literature. This paper highlights the extracoronal direct retainers, which can be used in the successful prosthodontic rehabilitation of distally edentulous arches with a removable partial denture.
  28,231 1,940 -
Significance of the Frankfort mandibular plane angle in prosthetic management of partially or completely edentulous patients with Class II malocclusions
Veena Hegde
October-December 2005, 5(4):175-179
Complete or partially edentulous patients with a skeletal class II skeletal jaw relationship due to a skeletal etiology comprise approximately 15% of the population with the two largest sub-categories being high and low FMA groups. Occlusal relationships in skeletal class II patients are often challenging because of arch size discrepancies which limits the potential occlusal contact area, steep guidance factors which can introduce occlusal interferences, and excessive range of motion which can complicate centric relation records. FMA determination provides a structure-function basis in selecting a scheme for occlusal reconstruction and should be incorporated in the treatment planning procedure as a major adjunctive diagnostic tool. The following treatise provides background information and treatment guidelines to facilitate improved prosthetic treatment for partially and completely edentulous skeletal class II patients.
  28,277 1,224 3
Esthetic considerations for the interdental papilla: Eliminating black triangles around restorations: A literature review
Iyer Satishkumar Krishnan, Mohit G Kheur
October-December 2006, 6(4):164-169
Several reasons contribute to the loss or absence of interdental papillae and establishment of 'black triangles' following the placement of bridges/individual crowns or restoration of implants, mainly in the anterior region. The most common reason for the absence in the adult population is loss of periodontal support because of plaque-associated lesions. The other causes include abnormal tooth shape, improper contour of prosthetic restorations and traumatic oral hygiene procedures. These Black Triangles appear extremely unesthetic and are unacceptable to the patients who deserve more than 'these will fill up in a few week's time' from the dentist. It is evident that something as seemingly insignificant as the interdental papilla can shatter the esthetic results of the best fabricated crowns. Several surgical and non-surgical procedures have been proposed to treat the soft tissue deformities in the interproximal areas. The non-surgical approaches modify the interproximal space whereas the surgical approaches aim to recontour, preserve or reconstruct the soft tissue between the teeth and implants. This review deals with an in-depth discussion of the interdental papilla, reasons for its absence around dental restorations and various documented methods of preserving and regenerating it so as to deliver the best overall prosthetic results. This review discusses the interdental papilla in detail and categorizes the various approaches to restore the same.
  25,541 2,338 1
Concepts of occlusion in prosthodontics: A literature review, part II
V Rangarajan, PB Yogesh, B Gajapathi, M Mohamed Ibrahim, R Ganesh Kumar, Murali Karthik
January-March 2016, 16(1):8-14
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.164915  PMID:27134421
This series of articles describes about concepts of occlusion in the complete denture, fixed partial denture, and implants. This article discusses about the evolution of different concepts of nonbalanced occlusion and occlusal schemes in complete denture occlusion.
  22,805 4,217 5
Non-rigid connectors in fixed prosthodontics: Current concepts with a case report
PV Badwaik, AJ Pakhan
April-June 2005, 5(2):99-102
The occlusal forces applied to a fixed partial denture (FPD) are transmitted to the supporting structures through the pontic, connectors, and retainers. Variables that may influence the longevity of an FPD and its abutment include occlusion, span length, bone loss, and quality of periodontium. The excessive flexing of the long-span FPD, which varies with the cube of the length of span, can lead to material failure of prosthesis or to an unfavorable response. Biomechanical factors such as overload, leverage, torque and flexing, induce abnormal stress concentration in an FPD. Stress concentration is found in the connectors of the prosthesis and in the cervical dentin area near the edentulous ridge. This factor plays an important role in the potential for failure in long-span FPD. The conventional use of a nonrigid connector (NRC) aids in compensating for the difference in the resistance and retention form between the abutments. The design and passive fit of NRC is critical to the success of a long-span FPD. This paper presents the current concepts in the design of an NRC and a case report of Pier abutment treated with FPD having Tenon-Mortise Connector.
  24,538 2,024 2
Critical evaluation of various methods of recording centric jaw relation
Sanjay Bansal, Jayant Palaskar
October-December 2008, 8(4):185-191
The rationale of recording Centric Relation records is to establish guidelines as starting point to develop occlusion with artificial teeth in harmony with the various structures of masticatory apparatus including TMJ. It aids to maintain physiologic as well as anatomic health of tissues. When maximum intercuspation is coinciding with centric position, it provides stability to the prosthesis thereby preserving the health of remaining tissues (edentulous foundation, remaining natural teeth, musculature and TMJ) is accomplished.
  23,277 3,124 1
Direct retainers: Esthetic solutions in the smile zone
MA Aras, V Chitre
January-March 2005, 5(1):4-9
Direct retainers are the essential components of cast removable partial dentures. However, their presence and acute visibility, when the patient smiles, can be a sore to the eye. The unaesthetic appearance of the direct retainer is a vexing problem that dentists in general and the patient in particular have to contend with. Presented herein is a literature review of the various means to either eliminate or minimize their display when the patient bears a smile.
  23,772 2,158 -
A review of the disorders of the temperomandibular joint
V Hegde
April-June 2005, 5(2):56-61
Temperomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases and disorders refer to a complex and poorly understood set of conditions, manifested by pain in the area of the jaw and associated muscles, and limitations in the ability to make the normal movements of speech, facial expression, eating, chewing, and swallowing. It has been estimated that 25% of the general population suffer from TMJ related symptoms and only 2% of them seek treatment. General joint and muscle diseases, psychological and psychosocial factors, and local influences such as occlusal disturbances, parafunctional activities, that is, bruxism, and traumas, can affect the condition of the TMJ. This article describes the functional anatomy, classification, aetiopathology, and management of this condition in detail.
  24,332 1,333 4
Nanotechnology: The future of dentistry
HM Jhaveri, PR Balaji
January-March 2005, 5(1):15-17
The human characteristics of curiosity, wonder and ingenuity are as old as mankind. For many years people around the world have been harnessing their curiosity into inquiry and the process of scientific methodology. Science is the fuel for the engine of technology! And hence the fuel for progress, this article intends to highlight the success of the science and technology of miniaturization, i.e. nanotechnology in dental care applications such as composites, bonding agents, and impression materials.
  23,379 1,671 3
The shortened dental arch concept: A treatment modality for the partially dentate patient
Vernie A Fernandes, Vidya Chitre
July-September 2008, 8(3):134-139
Acceptable oral health, throughout life, is the retention of a functional, esthetic, natural dentition of not less than 20 teeth and not requiring recourse to prostheses. This implies that adult patients have adequate oral functionality when the posterior-most teeth are the second premolars. The concept of the shortened but functional dental arch addresses this issue, and the literature indicates that the Shortened Dental Arch (SDA) does not contradict current occlusal theories, while offering some important advantages. In particular, the SDA protocol decreases the emphasis on restorative treatments for the posterior regions of the mouth. It, thus, avoids the risk of over-treatment of the patient, while still providing a high standard of care and minimizing cost.
  22,718 2,111 1
Current concepts in the restoration of endodontically treated teeth
Vidyashree V Nandini, V Venkatesh
April-June 2006, 6(2):63-67
With a plethora of postsystems available, it is often difficult to decide which one to use. This is made more difficult by the fact that new posts are introduced before existing ones are fully evaluated in laboratory and clinical studies. This article is an evidence-based description of the different post types and the main advantages and disadvantages of each and changing trends in treatment planning, understanding of the subject, options available to us with regard to materials. Though the choice of post will be driven by personal preference and a history of clinical success, there are certain pit falls to avoid and these are outlined.
  21,909 2,192 1
Removable partial dentures designing: Forces as primary concern
SG Singla, Jagmohan Lal
October-December 2006, 6(4):179-184
All structural analysis and designing of an removable partial dentures (RPD) require a knowledge of the forces that will be applied and the ability of the structure to withstand these forces. An RPD is an appliance that allows 'controlled' movement in function under load to avoid impingement of tissues and injury to abutments. The load transfer characteristics of various RPD designs are important for best prognosis and longevity. Thus judicious incorporation of various components in an RPD involves counteraction of vertical, horizontal, and rotational forces to which an appliance is subjected in the oral cavity. The purpose of this article is to design an appliance based on isolation of various forces to which it is subjected during function.
  21,411 1,977 -
Psychological considerations for complete denture patients
Kranti Ashoknath Bandodkar, Meena Aras
April-June 2007, 7(2):71-76
One of the most important factors in the diagnosis of prosthodontic patients is their mental attitude. This is not a mechanical or biological problem. It requires understanding of people and the ways in which they may react to situations. Dentists can use their training in psychology to detect patients' attitudes and reactions during diagnostic appointments. They can then modify their own attitudes and reactions so that mutual confidence can be established. This article reviews the importance of personality in dentist-patient communication and of the psychosomatic component in prosthodontic treatment.
  19,579 2,056 6
Prosthodontic management of severely worn dentition: including review of literature related to physiology and pathology of increased vertical dimension of occlusion
MG Krishna, KS Rao, K Goyal
April-June 2005, 5(2):89-93
The factors causing severe wear of natural teeth must be identified and eliminated, or reduced before attempting restorative treatment. This will not only prevent further wear of teeth but also improve the long-term prognosis of restorative treatment. The different clinical situations can be classified in to three types, as described by Turner and Missirlian. While most of the cases can be managed without increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), in some cases, the vertical dimension has to be increased. The evaluation and establishment of the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) is considered particularly important. Before placement of fixed restorations to increase the VDO, a removable splint, and then provisional restorations must be tried to check the suitability of the increase in OVD. A kinematic transverse horizontal axis facebow transfer helps in the accurate transfer of horizontal relation to the articulator. Research with humans and animals has shown that if increases in OVD are not extreme and the occlusion is stable, then there is a good possibility of adaptation. Management of a case of severe teeth wear caused by bruxism is described.
  19,586 1,920 3
Osseodensification – A novel approach in implant dentistry
Umesh Y Pai, Shobha J Rodrigues, Karishma S Talreja, Mahesh Mundathaje
July-September 2018, 18(3):196-200
DOI:10.4103/jips.jips_292_17  PMID:30111907
Primary stability in dental implants is an essential factor for achieving successful osseointegration. Surgical procedure and bone quality are among the most common factors that affect primary stability. It is also crucial to achieve high-insertion torque which is important for obtaining primary stability. Maintaining sufficient bone bulk and density is essential to achieve necessary bone-to-implant contact for obtaining a biomechanically stable implant. A new concept for osteotomy called osseodensification (OD) has been at the forefront of changes in surgical site preparation in implantology. This relatively new concept with universally compatible drills has been proposed to help in better osteotomy preparation, bone densification, and indirect sinus lift and also achieve bone expansion at different sites of varying bone densities. This procedure has also shown improvement in achieving better implant primary stability and better osteotomy than conventional implant drills. A systematic review was undertaken to analyze if OD procedure had any advantages over conventional osteotomy on bone density and primary stability. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed using keywords such as “OD,” “implant primary stability,” “implant bone density,” and “implant osteotomy.” A total of 195 articles were collected and subjected to screening using inclusion and exclusion criteria. A literature review was done, following which it was seen that the use of versah drills for bone OD resulted in undersized osteotomy compared to conventional drills. It also resulted in improved bone density and increase in percentage bone volume and bone-to-implant contact, thereby improving implant stability.
  18,568 2,660 13
Combination syndrome
Nishtha Madan, Kusum Datta
January-March 2006, 6(1):10-13
Combination syndrome, first identified by Kelly in 1972, is found in patients wearing a complete maxillary denture, opposing a mandibular distal extension prosthesis. The group of complications occurring in these patients are interlinked to one another and collectively represent a syndrome. The manifestations include flabby tissues in the anterior part of the maxillary ridge, tilting of the occlusal plane posteriorly downwards, supraeruption of lower anteriors, fibrous overgrowth of tissues in maxillary tuberosities, resorption in mandibular distal extension area and decreased vertical dimension of occlusion. Treatment modality is determined by the apparent potential of the patient to develop the combination syndrome and the condition of the remaining mandibular anterior teeth. Predictable prognosis is offered by overdentures, especially for patients who already have the syndrome and using fixed mandibular prosthesis over implants placed immediately after dental extractions.
  18,912 1,945 -
Clinical tips in full veneer tooth preparation
Neelam Sharma, Vidya Chitre
July-September 2007, 7(3):137-142
Tooth preparation in fixed prosthodontics represents the equilibrium between the conservation of the tooth structure and pulp health, whilst achieving an esthetic and strong crown. A well planned approach coupled with the understanding of pertinent theories underlying each step is critical for a successful tooth preparation. The reduction of the tooth structure must be preceded by a mental image of the design of the artificial crown and the anticipated occlusion. This paper discusses certain important clinical tips in the procedures used for full veneer tooth preparation.
  19,050 1,521 1
Role of anterior guidance in esthetic and functional rehabilitation
Aradhana Nagarsekar, Meena Aras
October-December 2008, 8(4):225-227
The key to long-term occlusal stability is providing the correct anterior guidance along with esthetics. Often, little attention is given to the incisal /anterior guidance in prosthetic rehabilitation which equals or surpasses the condylar guidance in its influence upon the functional occlusion. This article presents a conservative approach to restore esthetics and function in a patient having worn anterior dentition with edge-to-edge relationship and reverse smile line.
  18,622 1,854 -
Nutrition for geriatric denture patients
Kranti Ashoknath Bandodkar, Meena Aras
January-March 2006, 6(1):22-28
Perfect health is a prize that has been the goal of mankind throughout all ages. Nutrition provides substrates essential for expression of genetic heritage. It follows therefore, that nutrition might influence the occurrence and severity of degenerative diseases that are associated with aging. Nutritional problems may result from changes associated with aging process itself, from disease or other medical conditions, from interactions with medications, or from all of these. This review summarizes articles that describe the changes in diet associated with aging.
  18,138 1,867 5
Evolution of denture base materials
SK Khindria, Sanjeev Mittal, Urvashi Sukhija
April-June 2009, 9(2):64-69
The transition from naturally occurring materials to the application of synthetic resins in denture construction indicates the extent of development taking place. Research carried out by workers has promoted the foundation of future knowledge and it can be hoped that the unending search for denture base materials with desirable qualities will always continue. This article summarizes the historical background as well as the development of denture base materials.
  17,208 2,459 12
Validity of soft tissue landmarks in determining the occlusal plane
K Shigli, BR Chetal, J Jabade
July-September 2005, 5(3):139-145
The orientation of the occlusal plane is an important clinical procedure in prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients. Various intraoral and extraoral landmarks have been used for the orientation of the occlusal plane, but none of them give sufficient guidelines for that purpose. Therefore, a study was carried out to ascertain the role of intraoral and extraoral soft tissue landmarks in determining the occlusal plane. 30 Indian subjects ranging in age from 19-23 years were selected from a group of approximately 200 dental students. The soft tissue landmarks considered in the study were retromolar pad, parotid papilla, commissure of the lips, buccinator groove, and ala-tragus line. An indigeneously fabricated "Occlusal plane relator" was used to find out the relative parallelism of the ala-tragus line and the occlusal plane. This device had a base with a vertical arm over which a sliding ball and socket joint was placed. This joint had a direct connection with the anterior occlusal plane indicator and ala-tragus line indicator. Absolute mean was taken of the two readings on ala-tragus line indicator on either side of the face. The line in which the difference between the two readings was least was parallel to the occlusal plane. The lower 1/3rd of the retromolar pad was observed to be consistent with the mandibular occlusal plane. The mean distance of the parotid papilla was 2.56 mm above the maxillary occlusal plane. The mean values of all readings of buccinator groove was 0.94 mm below the mandibular occlusal plane. In this study close correlation was observed between the mandibular occlusal plane and the commissure of the lips; the mandibular occlusal plane and the buccinator groove. The line drawn from the ala of the nose to the middle of the tragus was found to be parallel to the maxillary occlusal plane.
  17,697 1,392 3
Prosthodontic treatment protocol for a geriatric dental patient
R Ravichandran
April-June 2006, 6(2):60-62
Replacement of missing teeth has been the consistent focus of many dental practitioners for decades together. Over 9 million or one third of todays senior population are without natural teeth. Infact these may be ever an increased medical problems and economic factors encourage the extraction of diseased or fractured teeth over complex restorative procedures. With steady rising rates of total tooth lessens, replacements of missing teeth is a service that the dental profession has to provide widely and to a greater degree to the aged patients.
  16,671 1,982 1