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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| April-June  | Volume 16 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 28, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Current trends to measure implant stability
Vasanthi Swami, Vasantha Vijayaraghavan, Vinit Swami
April-June 2016, 16(2):124-130
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176539  PMID:27141160
Implant stability plays a critical role for successful osseointegration. Successful osseointegration is a prerequisite for functional dental implants. Continuous monitoring in an objective and qualitative manner is important to determine the status of implant stability. Implant stability is measured at two different stages: Primary and secondary. Primary stability comes from mechanical engagement with cortical bone. Secondary stability is developed from regeneration and remodeling of the bone and tissue around the implant after insertion and affected by the primary stability, bone formation and remodelling. The time of functional loading is dependent upon the implant stability. Historically the gold standard method to evaluate stability were microscopic or histologic analysis, radiographs, however due to invasiveness of these methods and related ethical issues various other methods have been proposed like cutting torque resistance, reverse torque analysis, model analysis etc. It is, therefore, of an utmost importance to be able to access implant stability at various time points and to project a long term prognosis for successful therapy. Therefore this review focuses on the currently available methods for evaluation of implant stability.
  30 10,243 1,474
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of clinical performance of different kind of occlusal splint in management of myofascial pain
Anish Amin, Roseline Meshramkar, K Lekha
April-June 2016, 16(2):176-181
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176521  PMID:27141168
Purpose: To determine the efficacy of hard, liquid, and soft splints in the management of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 45 patients with myofascial pain were diagnosed and were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 patients each. Group 1 - subjects were given hard splint, Group 2 - soft splint, and Group 3 - liquid oral splint for 3 months. Subjective pain analysis using Modified Symptom Severity Index (Mod-SSI) and objective pain analysis muscle palpation was performed at 7 days, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after splint insertion. The changes in mean pain value by both methods, in all three groups, were analyzed with Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test, respectively (P < 0.05). Results: Both Mod-SSI and palpation scores showed statistically significant reduction in pain for all three groups at the end of 3 months. However, the hard splints proved to be very effective in a shorter period of time, followed by liquid splints and finally soft splints. Conclusion: The result of this study advocates the use of any one of the three types of the occlusal splints in the therapeutic management of myofascial pain due to temporomandibular disorders.
  14 7,160 730
Clinical acceptability of metal-ceramic fixed partial dental prosthesis fabricated with direct metal laser sintering technique-5 year follow-up
Radhakrishnan Prabhu, Geetha Prabhu, Eswaran Baskaran, Eswaran M Arumugam
April-June 2016, 16(2):193-197
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176526  PMID:27141171
Statement of Problem: In recent years, direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) metal-ceramic-based fixed partial denture prostheses have been used as an alternative to conventional metal-ceramic fixed partial denture prostheses. However, clinical studies for evaluating their long-term clinical survivability and acceptability are limited. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis fabricated with DMLS technique, and its clinical acceptance on long-term clinical use. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 45 patients who were restored with posterior three-unit fixed partial denture prosthesis made using direct laser sintered metal-ceramic restorations. Patient recall and clinical examination of the restorations were done after 6months and every 12 months thereafter for the period of 60 months. Clinical examination for evaluation of longevity of restorations was done using modified Ryge criteria which included chipping of the veneered ceramic, connector failure occurring in the fixed partial denture prosthesis, discoloration at the marginal areas of the veneered ceramic, and marginal adaptation of the metal and ceramic of the fixed denture prosthesis. Periapical status was assessed using periodical radiographs during the study period. Survival analysis was made using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: None of the patients had failure of the connector of the fixed partial denture prostheses during the study period. Two exhibited biological changes which included periapical changes and proximal caries adjacent to the abutments. Conclusion: DMLS metal-ceramic fixed partial denture prosthesis had a survival rate of 95.5% and yielded promising results during the 5-year clinical study.
  6 5,330 551
Comparison of implant cast accuracy of multiple implant impression technique with different splinting materials: An in vitro study
Sunantha Selvaraj, Jayachandran Dorairaj, Jayashree Mohan, Paul Simon
April-June 2016, 16(2):167-175
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.167937  PMID:27141167
Introduction: An accurate and passive fit of implant framework prosthesis, as well as the successful surgical operation is suggested as one of the critical requirements for long-term implant success. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of the master cast using open tray impression technique with conventional and novel splinting materials. Methodology: A mandibular reference model with four ADIN implants was done. Ten custom trays were fabricated using the light curable resin sheets. Medium body polyether impression material was used. These trays were randomly divided between the two groups, with five trays in each group. Impression techniques were divided into two groups namely: Group A: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with autopolymerizing acrylic resin (GC pattern resin). Group B: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with Pro-temp TM 4 (bis-GMA) syringable temporization material. Thus, final impressions were made. Total of 10 master casts were fabricated. Evaluation of casts using Dynascope-Vision Engineering, TESA microhite two- dimension and coordinate measuring machine were used. Results: Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA test and post-hoc test. Same amount of deviation values obtained with resin splinted and bis-GMA splinted impression copings. Conclusion: The master cast obtained by both the splinting material exhibits no difference from the reference model. So bis-GMA can be used, which is easy to handle, less time consuming, less technique sensitive, rigid, and readily available material in clinics.
  5 4,788 550
Comparison of masticatory efficiency, patient satisfaction for single, two, and three implants supported overdenture in the same patient: A pilot study
Srinidhi Bhat, Ramesh Chowdhary, Sudhindra Mahoorkar
April-June 2016, 16(2):182-186
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176522  PMID:27141169
Statement of Problem: Over 30% of the world population suffers from edentulism. Implant supported overdenture have been a relatively successful treatment option for edentulism and have shown to slowed the rate of residual resorption and maintain the vertical height of the residual. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure patient masticatary efficiency and satisfaction with the mandibular one-, two-, and three-implant-retained overdenture therapy when compared with conventional denture in a the same patients. Materials and Methods: Ten complete edentulous patients, who were wearing conventional complete dentures, were involved in this study. Three single piece endosseous implant of 3.0 mm in diameter and 13 mm in length were surgically placed in the mandible in the region of B, C, and D. Mandibular denture was connected for single, two, and three implant supported overdenture periodically and checked for masticatory efficiency using a bite gauge and patient satisfaction using a questionnaire. Results: Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Four groups of bite forces when compared to each other. Group 1 was compared with Group 2, with the statistical value showing significance. Signed rank test showed no significance (0.268) when Group 2 was compared with Group 3. When Group 3 was compared with Group 4, and Group 1 compared with Group 4, rank test showed significant values. Four groups were compared with each other for patient satisfaction, Group 1 was compared with Group 2, with the statistical value showing no significance. Conclusions: A single midline implant supported overdenture can be considered as a suitable and cost-effective treatment option over conventional denture. The study concludes that masticatory efficiency of this single midline implant supported overdenture is better than the conventional complete denture.
  5 7,552 438
Classification system on the selection of number of implants and superstructure design on the basis available vertical restorative space and interforaminal distance for implant supported mandibular overdenture
Akshay Bhargava, Manoti Sehgal, Sharad Gupta, Praful Mehra
April-June 2016, 16(2):131-135
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176541  PMID:27141161
Purpose: The rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible is a challenge due to various limiting factors, of which the available vertical restorative space (AVRS) has been well understood in the literature. However, other anatomic variations such as arch form, arch size, and also the interforaminal distance (IFD) (due to the presence of mandibular nerve) are influential in the selection of size and position of implants, and thereby the prosthetic design. Materials and Method: In the present study, 30 edentulous patients from a group of 300 edentulous patients, representing all the three jaw relations (Class I, II, and III) were evaluated for designing a classification that could help in a comprehensive treatment plan for the edentulous mandible. Dental panoramic radiographs of each individual with a trial or final prosthesis were made. The horizontal IFD and AVRS values were calculated. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by post-hoc test (multiple comparison) and Bonferroni method having P < 0.05 as significant value showed an overall mean of 38.9 mm for horizontal distance and 13.69 mm for the AVRS in 30 edentulous patients. Conclusion: The results showed that in the majority of cases (90%) there is insufficient space to place a bar attachment supported by five implants for mandibular overdentures. This suggests that a universal treatment plan cannot be followed due to varying anatomic factors. Hence, it becomes imperative to have a set of clinical guidelines based on the AVRS and IFD, for the selection of implant number and type of attachment. The article proposes a simple classification system based on the AVRS and IFD for establishing guidelines in the treatment planning of the edentulous mandible, to aid in selection of implant size, number, and position along with the associated prosthetic design.
  4 8,380 958
Comparative analysis of sagittal condylar guidance by protrusive interocclusal records with panoramic and lateral cephalogram radiographs in dentulous population: A clinico-radiographic study
Girish Galagali, Sufiyan M Kalekhan, Prakash Nidawani, Jagadeesh Naik, Sidhartha Behera
April-June 2016, 16(2):148-153
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.179322  PMID:27141164
Aim : To evaluate and compare the correlation between sagittal condylar guidance obtained by protrusive interocclusal records mounted on semi-adjustable articulator with panoramic and Lateral cephalogram radiograph tracings in dentulous population. Materials and Methods: One-hundred twenty dentulous subjects between age group of 20-40 years, free of signs and symptoms of any temporomandibular diseases were selected. The sagittal condylar guidance was determined by protrusive interocclusal records and transferred to a semi-adjustable articulator through a face bow. The condylar guidance angles obtained were tabulated. The sagittal outline of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa were traced on panoramic and lateral cephalogram radiographs. The sagittal condylar path inclination was constructed. This was related to the Frankfurt's horizontal plane on radiograph to determine the radiographic angle of sagittal condylar guidance. The comparison of protrusive interocclusal records was done with the angles obtained by panoramic and lateral cephalogram radiograph tracings. Results: The mean difference between the condylar guidance values obtained using panoramic and lateral cephalogram radiographs was 0.13° and 0.67° on right side and 1.0° and 1.54° on left side with the radiographic values being higher. A Significant positive correlation was observed with P values 0.001 and 0.005 in left and right respectively. Conclusion: This study highlighted on the correlation between protrusive interocclusal records and the lateral cephalogram radiograph tracings which were more positively related than the panoramic radiograph. The values of lateral cephalogram radiograph tracings are closer as separate radiographs for left and right side were taken, causing the amount and quality of image distortion less. Lateral cephalogram radiograph may be taken as an important tool to rely on for recording the Sagittal condylar guidance angle.
  4 6,331 624
CASE REPORTS
Prosthetic rehabilitation of surgically treated orbital defects - evisceration, enucleation, and exenteration: A case series
Anna Serene Babu, V Manju, Vinod P Nair, C Tony Thomas
April-June 2016, 16(2):216-220
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.167947  PMID:27141176
The rehabilitation of a patient who has suffered the psychological trauma due to loss of an eye requires a prosthesis that will provide the optimum cosmetic and functional result. The mode of rehabilitation varies based on the type of defect and surgical approach being adopted. A case series of prosthetic rehabilitation of three types of orbital defects - evisceration, enucleation and exenteration have been reported in this article. The clinical relevance of surgical approaches highlights the preservation of remaining anatomic structures creating a negative space or concavity to aid in future prosthetic rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary management and team approach is essential in providing esthetics and to regain the confidence. Follow-up care for the patient is mandatory.
  3 3,699 380
GUEST EDITORIAL
Neuropathic pain
Junad Khan
April-June 2016, 16(2):114-115
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.179317  PMID:27141158
  3 2,831 233
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An in vitro comparative study to evaluate the retention of different attachment systems used in implant-retained overdentures
Tejomaya Shastry, NM Anupama, Shilpa Shetty, M Nalinakshamma
April-June 2016, 16(2):159-166
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176520  PMID:27141166
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the change in the retentive force and removal torque of three attachment systems during simulation of insertion-removal cycles. Methodology: Edentulous mandibular models were made with heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. Two implant replicas (CMI), of 3.75 mm diameter and 10 mm length, were placed in the intraforaminal region. Acrylic resin mandibular overdentures were fabricated and provision was made to receive three different overdenture attachment systems, prefabricated ball/o-ring attachment (Lifecare Biosystems, Thane, India), Hader bar and clip attachment (Sterngold, Attleboro, MA), and Locator ® implant overdenture attachment stud type (Zest Anchors LLC, USA). Using a universal testing machine, each of the models were subjected to 100 pulls each to dislodge the overdenture from the acrylic model, and the force values as indicated on the digital indicator were tabulated both before and after thermocycling (AT). Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis comprised Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman test, and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: The statistical model revealed a significantly different behavior of the attachment systems both before and AT. The ball/o-ring and bar attachments developed higher retentive force as compared to the locator attachment. The bar and clip attachment exhibited the highest peak as well as the highest mean retention force at the end of the study. The Locator ® attachment showed a decrease in retentive potential after an early peak. Conclusions and Clinical Implications: The ball/o-ring and bar and clip attachments exhibit higher retentive capacities than the Locator ® attachment over time.
  3 6,212 912
CASE REPORTS
A systematic approach in rehabilitation of hemimandibulectomy: A case report
Ashlesha Subhash Marathe, Prasad Shankarrao Kshirsagar
April-June 2016, 16(2):208-212
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.164914  PMID:27141174
Loss of mandibular continuity results in deviation of remaining mandibular segment toward the resected side primarily because of the loss of tissue involved in the surgical resection. The success in rehabilitating a patient with hemimandibulectomy depends upon the nature and extent of the surgical defect, treatment plan, type of prosthesis, and patient co-operation. The earlier the mandibular guidance therapy is initiated in the course of treatment; the more successful is the patient's definitive occlusal relationship. Prosthodontic treatment coupled with an exercise program helps in reducing mandibular deviation and improving masticatory efficiency. This case report describes prosthodontic management of a patient who has undergone a hemimandibulectomy and was rehabilitated using provisional guide flange prosthesis followed by a definitive maxillary and mandibular cast partial denture with precision attachments designed to fulfill the patient's needs and requirements.
  2 7,895 844
An innovative simplified method for assessing available bone in mandible for implant
S Binsu, K Chandrasekharan Nair, Sanjana Nayar, Suchita Tella
April-June 2016, 16(2):213-215
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.167946  PMID:27141175
The primary factor that determines the success of implant is the amount of available bone in the edentulous site. Diagnostic imaging and techniques help to develop and implement a cohesive and comprehensive treatment plan according to the available bone. In the following case report an innovative simplified method (poor man CT) is used to fabricate a three dimensional model to assess the available bone for implant placement in mandible.
  1 2,629 288
EDITORIAL
Evidence based research in prosthodontics
N Gopi Chander
April-June 2016, 16(2):113-113
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.179316  PMID:27141157
  1 3,177 351
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of correlation between posterior palatal seal width and soft palatal angulation with palatal contour
Rupal J Shah, Sanjay B Lagdive, Divyeshkumar B Modi, Bhavyata Darji, Vedanshi A Amin, Ghanshyambhai C Patel
April-June 2016, 16(2):154-158
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176519  PMID:27141165
Context: The spatial relationship of posterior palatal seal (PPS) width and vibrating lines varies among individuals. Such variability could be related to contour of the palate. Aims: The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between PPS width of the patient intra-orally and cephalometric tracing of the same patient. Second part of the study was formulated to determine whether the anterior and posterior vibrating lines can be distinguished as two separate lines by different observers. Materials and Methods: A lateral cephalogram was made to trace the hard and soft palatal contour, and the angle of the palatal contour was measured with the v-ceph program. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the distance from anterior to posterior vibrating lines and the angle of the palatal contour at the junction of the hard and soft palate. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the Karl Pearson Correlation test. Results: Correlation of the angle of the palatal contour to PPS width, showed perfectly positive value; whereas, correlation of angle between anterior nasal spine-posterior nasal spine (ANS-PNS) and PNS-Uvula (U) to PPS width showed partially positive value. Conclusion: The correlation of angle between hard tissue and soft tissue to PPS width, and the angle between ANS-PNS and PNS-U to PPS width, increases with an increase in PPS width.
  1 5,513 690
Assessment and comparison of retention of zirconia copings luted with different cements onto zirconia and titanium abutments: An in vitro study
Neelima Sreekumar Menon, GP Surendra Kumar, KR Jnanadev, CL Satish Babu, Shilpa Shetty
April-June 2016, 16(2):136-141
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176540  PMID:27141162
Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the retention of zirconia copings luted with different luting agents onto zirconia and titanium abutments. Materials and Methods: Titanium and zirconia abutments were torqued at 35 N/cm onto implant analogs. The samples were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of four titanium abutments and 32 zirconia copings and Group B consisted of four zirconia abutments and 32 zirconia copings and four luting agents were used. The cemented copings were subjected to tensile dislodgement forces and subjected to ANOVA test. Results: Zirconia abutments recorded a higher mean force compared to titanium. Among the luting agents, resin cement recorded the highest mean force followed by zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and noneugenol zinc oxide cement, respectively. Conclusion: Highest mean retention was recorded for zirconia implant abutments compared to titanium abutments when luted with zirconia copings.
  1 2,934 306
REVIEW ARTICLES
Some issues related to evidence-based implantology
Gunnar E Carlsson
April-June 2016, 16(2):116-123
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.179318  PMID:27141159
This article reviews relevant dental literature to answer some frequent questions related to evidence-based implantology. There are hundreds of implant systems on the market, but the majority lack clinical documentation. Recommended number of implants for full-arch fixed prostheses is four or five in the mandible but at least six in the maxilla. Less expensive implant-retained overdentures make implant treatment available to a greater portion of edentulous subjects. Mandibular overdentures on two implants, and even one implant, have shown excellent long-term outcomes. In the maxilla, less than four implants are not recommended for good results. Single implant restorations have good prognosis, but placement of the implant should be postponed until adulthood. Osseointegrated implants have revolutionized clinical dentistry. However, in a global perspective, implants make up only a small part of all prosthodontic treatment. Knowledge and skill in conventional prosthodontics must be maintained as it will remain the most common part of the specialty.
  1 3,897 405
CASE REPORTS
Prosthodontic rehabilitation of completely edentulous patient with partial glossectomy
Aditi Garg
April-June 2016, 16(2):204-207
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176534  PMID:27141173
Oral cancer accounts for about 40% of all cancers inflicting the human beings. Those involving the tongue results in mild to severe deficiencies of phonation, deglutition, mastication, and taste depending upon the degree and extent tissues involved. Often rehabilitation of such patient is a challenge for the prosthodontist and involves a careful observation and evaluation of the residual oral function and ways to restore them. This article presents a case report of prosthodontic rehabilitation completely edentulous patient, who underwent partial glossectomy following surgical resection of the squamous cell carcinoma involving left lateral borders of the tongue. An attempt was made to restore the comfort and function of the patient with the help of palatal augmentation prosthesis, with additional assistance through speech therapy and simple oral exercises.
  - 3,678 396
Rehabilitation of resorbed mandibular ridges using mini implant retained overdentures: A case series with 3 year follow-up
Pooja Kumari, Mahesh Verma, Vikrant Sainia, Rekha Gupta, Shubhra Gill
April-June 2016, 16(2):221-226
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.167948  PMID:27141177
With the increasing average life expectancy of human beings, the need to cater geriatric patients is ever increasing. Complete dentures are an indispensable tool in this regard. The loose and unstable lower complete denture owing to residual ridge resorption is one of the most common problems faced by edentulous patients. Dental implant retained overdentures have emerged as an efficient treatment modality for such patients. Though useful, not every patient is a suitable candidate to go for conventional implant-borne prosthesis, limitation being the available bone width. In such cases, mini implants may be used for augmenting the retention of the dentures and improving the quality of life of patients. In this case series, rehabilitation of three compromised cases with mini implant retained overdentures have been described wherein patients are experiencing instability of lower denture due to thin resorbed mandibular ridges. In one of the cases, three mini implants placed in A, C, and E position were splinted using a cemented bar to retain the mandibular denture. The other two cases were rehabilitated using unsplinted ball type one piece mini implants placed in A, C, and E position in one case and B and D position in another case. Though splinted bar design should be preferred but the lack of available vertical space precluded the utilization of bar in other two cases. The results were found to be satisfactory with no complications reported during a follow-up period of over 3 years in all the cases.
  - 4,222 438
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of variation of impression material combinations, dual arch tray types, and sequence of pour on the accuracy of working dies: "An in vitro study"
Nagam Raja Reddy, Jakranpally Sathya Reddy, Bramha Josyula Indira Padmaja, Budigi Madan Mohan Reddy, Motupalli Sunil, Bommireddy Tejeswar Reddy
April-June 2016, 16(2):198-203
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176527  PMID:27141172
Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of dies made from dual arch impressions using different sectional dual arch trays, combinations of elastomeric impression materials, and the sequence of pour of dies. Subjects and Methods: The dual arch impression materials were grouped into three groups depending on the combination of impression materials used and each group is subdivided into four subgroups. A sample size of 8 in each subgroup yielding a total 96 impressions will be made into three groups of 32 each (Group I, II, and III). Group I constitute impressions made using monophase (M) impression material, Group II constitute impressions made using combination of heavy body and light body (HL), and Group III constitute impressions made using combination of putty and light body (PL). Dies obtained were evaluated with a travelling microscope to measure the buccolingual width of the tooth at the margin by using the sharp corners of the notches as reference points. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis namely mean and standard deviation, one-way analysis of variance test. Results: The results obtained in this study indicate that though not statistically significant, the metal dual arch trays performed better when compared to the plastic trays in reproducing die dimensions. Conclusions: From the results obtained, dies poured from combination of heavy body and light body impressions using plastic or metal dual arch trays showed least variation in bucco-lingual dimension from master model.
  - 3,222 296
Use of PowerPoint presentation as a teaching tool for undergraduate students in the subject of gerodontology
Kamal Shigli, Neha Agrawal, Chandrasekharan Nair, Suresh Sajjan, Pradnya Kakodkar, Mamata Hebbal
April-June 2016, 16(2):187-192
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.167940  PMID:27141170
Aim: Though different teaching learning media have been employed in the instruction of geriatric dentistry, their efficacy has not been adequately evaluated. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the efficacy of a PowerPoint presentation in teaching gerodontology. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective follow-up study using a pre- and post-intervention assessment. A pilot study was conducted on the final year students to check the feasibility of the study. A convenience sampling procedure was used. All interns (n = 80) of the Modern Dental College and Research Centre, Indore, India were invited to participate. Interns completed a 24-item questionnaire documenting their current knowledge on gerodontology. One week after a 30 min PowerPoint presentation on gerodontology, the same interns completed the same questionnaire again, providing an indication of the efficacy of the learning tool. Paired t-test and McNemar test were employed for statistical analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in pre- and post-intervention scores (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that PowerPoint presentation can be used as an effective tool for improving the knowledge regarding gerodontology.
  - 4,867 245
Comparative evaluation of bonding strength of computer aided machined ceramic, pressable ceramic, and milled metal implant abutment copings and effect of surface conditioning on bonding strength: An in vitro study
Sapna Rani, Mahesh Verma, Shubhra Gill, Rekha Gupta
April-June 2016, 16(2):142-147
DOI:10.4103/0972-4052.176517  PMID:27141163
Background/Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided machined ceramic (CAD/CAM), pressable ceramic, and milled metal implant copings on abutment and the effect of surface conditioning on bonding strength. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 test samples were fabricated on three titanium abutments. Among 90 test samples, 30 copings were fabricated by CAD/CAM, 30 by pressable, and 30 by milling of titanium metal. These 30 test samples in each group were further subdivided equally for surface treatment. Fifteen out of 30 test samples in each group were surface conditioned with airborne particle abrasion. All the 90 test samples were luted on abutment with glass ionomer cement. Bonding strength was evaluated for all the samples using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The results obtained were compared and evaluated using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc and unpaired t-test at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean difference for CAD/CAM surface conditioned subgroup was 1.28 ± 0.12, for nonconditioned subgroup was 1.20 ± 0.11. The mean difference for pressable surface conditioned subgroup was 1.18 ± 0.04, and for nonconditioned subgroup was 0.75 ± 0.28. The mean difference for milled metal surface conditioned subgroup was 2.57 ± 0.58, and for nonconditioned subgroup was 1.49 ± 0.15. Conclusions: On comparison of bonding strength, milled metal copings had an edge over the other two materials, and surface conditioning increased the bond strength.
  - 2,984 250